What is magnesium oxide?
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that exists in nature as periclase and is a source of magnesium. It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a Mg2+ ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonding. In the presence of water, magnesium hydroxide is formed (MgO + H2O → Mg (OH) 2), but it may be possible to remove moisture by heating.
Magnesium oxide was historically known as magnesia alba, to distinguish it from magnesia negra, a black mineral containing what is now known as manganese.
“Magnesium oxide” normally stands for MgO, while magnesium peroxide MgO2 is also known as a compound. According to the evolutionary crystal structure prediction, MgO2 is thermodynamically stable at pressures above 116 GPa (gigapascals), and a semiconductor suboxide Mg3O2 is thermodynamically stable above 500 GPa. Because of its stability, MgO is used as a model system to investigate the vibrational properties of crystals. In addition, it is used in many different sectors and fields as a material that is highly resistant to high temperatures.
What does magnesium oxide look like?
White, solid mineral
How is magnesium oxide produced?
Magnesium oxide is produced by the calcination of magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide. The latter is obtained by treating solutions of magnesium chloride, sea water with lime water or milk of lime.
Mg2 + + Ca (OH) 2 → Mg (OH) 2 + Ca2 +
Calcification at different temperatures produces magnesium oxide with different reactivity. High temperatures between 1500-2000°C reduce the available surface area and produce fully burnt (often called deadburned) magnesia; it is a non-reactive form used as a refractory. Calcining temperatures of 1000-1500°C produce hard burnt magnesia with limited reactivity and low temperature calcination (700-1000°C), producing lightly burnt magnesia, which is a reactive form and is also known as caustic calcined magnesia. Although some decomposition of carbonate into oxide occurs at temperatures below 700°C, the resulting materials seem to reabsorb carbon dioxide from the air.
What is the molecular formula of magnesium oxide?
In which industries is magnesium oxide used?
- Water and waste treatment industry
- Additive in the food industry
- photography industry
- glass industry
- Librarianship and collecting
- Plant fertilizer and animal feed
- decoration products
- chemical industry
- medical industry
- Kiln and fire brick construction
What are the uses (processes) of magnesium oxide?
- Magnesium oxide is widely used in the soil and groundwater remediation, wastewater treatment, drinking water treatment, air emissions treatment and waste treatment industries due to its acid buffering capacity and effectiveness in stabilizing dissolved heavy metal species.
- Magnesium oxide can be used as a food additive with its anti-solidification agent feature.
- Magnesium oxide is used as an optical material in order to strengthen the external structure of the devices used in photography.
- It is used in plant fertilizer and animal feed ingredients.
- MgO is also used as a protective coating in plasma displays.
- Magnesium oxide is used as an oxide barrier in spin tunneling devices.
- An aerosolized solution of MgO is used in librarianship and collection management for deacidification of paper materials at risk. In this process, the alkalinity of MgO neutralizes the relatively high acidity of low-quality paper, slowing the rate of degradation.
- In the field of magnesium oxide industry, it is a useful substance during different processes due to its heat resistance in many different sectors. It is used as a reinforcement in the field of glass production with a mixture of magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride. Magnesium oxide is used in this sense in the production of home decoration products.
- It is used as an insulator in heat resistant electrical cable.
- Magnesium oxide is used in the chemical industry in Grignard reactions.
- Magnesium oxide is also used as a drug ingredient in the medical field. Magnesium oxide is used to relieve heartburn and dyspepsia, as a supplement for magnesium deficiency, and as a laxative for bowel cleansing. It is also used to improve symptoms of indigestion. Magnesium oxide can cause stomach cramps as a side effect.
- Due to its fire resistance, magnesium oxide is used in the construction of fire brick and furnace systems.
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Where Can I Buy Magnesium Oxide?
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