What is Copper Sulphate?
Copper sulfate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O) x. Here x varies from 0 to 5. Pentahydrate (x=5) is the most common form. Older names for this compound include bluestone, meteorite, bluestone, copper vitriol.
The most common salt, the pentahydrate (CuSO4 · 5H2O), is bright blue. The complex with octahedral molecular geometry [Cu (H2O) 6] dissolves exothermically in water to give 2+. The structure of the solid pentahydrate reveals a polymeric structure in which the copper is again octahedral but bound to four water ligands. The Cu(II)(H2O)4 centers are linked by sulfate anions to form chains. Anhydrous copper sulfate is a light gray powder.
How is Copper Sulphate produced?
Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or by treating its oxides with dilute sulfuric acid. Copper sulfate is frequently used in laboratory environments. Copper sulfate can also be produced by slow leaching of low-grade copper ore in air; Bacteria can be used to speed up the process.
Ticari bakır sülfat genellikle yaklaşık %98 saflığa sahiptir ve eser miktarda su içerebilir. Susuz bakır sülfat kütlece yüzde 39,81 bakır ve yüzde 60,19 sülfat olup mavi, sulu formunda kütlece %25,47 bakır, %38,47 sülfat (%12,82 kükürt) ve %36.06 sudur. Kullanımına bağlı olarak dört tür kristal boyutu sağlanır: büyük kristaller (10-40 mm), küçük kristaller (2-10 mm), kar kristalleri (2 mm’den az) ve rüzgârlı toz (0,15 mm’den az).
Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting. When heated at 63°C it loses two water molecules, then at 109°C it loses two water molecules and at 200°C it loses the last water molecule. Dehydration proceeds with the decomposition of the tetraaquacopper (2+) portion, the two opposing water groups disappear to give a diaquacopper (2+) portion. The second dehydration stage happens when the last two groups of water are lost. Complete dehydration occurs when the last unbound water molecule is lost. At 650°C, copper (II) sulfate decomposes into copper (II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Copper sulfate reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid to give tetrachlorocuprate (II):
Cu2 + + 4 Cl− → CuCl
What does Copper Sulphate look like?
It is blue and odorless.
What is the molecular formula of Copper Sulphate?
Its molecular formula is CuSO4.
In which sectors is Copper Sulphate used?
- Decoration and Construction
- Agriculture and Agriculture
- Production of Copper Products
- Paint Production
What are the usage areas (processes) of Copper Sulphate?
- As a fungicide and weed killer
Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a fungicide. However, some fungi can adapt to high levels of copper ions.
This mixture, a suspension of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), is used to control fungi on grapes, melons and other fruits. It is produced by mixing a water solution of copper sulfate and a suspension of slaked lime.
- As analytical reagent
Copper sulfate is used in some chemical tests. It is used to test the reduction of sugars reducing soluble blue copper (II) sulfate to insoluble red copper (I) oxide in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution. Copper(II) sulfate is also used in Biuret reagent to test proteins.
Also, copper sulfate is used to test for the presence of anemia in the blood. Blood is tested by dripping it into a solution of copper sulfate with a known specific gravity - blood with sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood that does not sink or sink slowly has insufficient amount of hemoglobin.
- It makes up for the copper deficiency in the soil and animals and promotes the growth of livestock.
- As organic synthesis
Copper sulfate is used at a limited level in organic synthesis. The anhydrous salt is used as a dehydration agent to form and process acetal groups. The hydrated salt can be mixed well with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols.
- It is used for the manufacture of artificial silk.
Reaction with ammonium hydroxide yields Tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate or Schweizer reagent, which is used to dissolve cellulose in the industrial production of artificial silk.
- Niche uses
Copper(II) sulfate has attracted many niche applications over the centuries. There are multiple applications of copper sulfate in industry. In printing, it is an additive for binding pastes and adhesives to protect paper from insect bites; It is used as an additive to concrete to provide waterproofing and disinfectant properties in the building. Copper sulfate can be used as a coloring ingredient in works of art, especially glasses and pots. Copper sulfate is also used as a blue coloring agent in the manufacture of fireworks, but it is not safe to mix copper sulfate with chlorates when mixing firework powders.
In 2008, artist Roger Hiorns filled an abandoned watertight city hall in London with 75,000 liters of copper sulfate solution. The solution was allowed to crystallize for several weeks before the apartment was evacuated, leaving the crystal-lined walls, floors and ceilings. The work was given the name Nöbet. This artwork has been on display at Yorkshire Sculpture Park since 2011.
Copper sulfate is used to etch copper plates. It is also used to engrave designs into copper for jewellery.
Copper sulfate can be used as a color stabilizer in vegetable dyeing. It often highlights the green tones of certain paints.
An aqueous solution of copper sulfate is often used as a resistor in liquid resistors.
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