What is betaine?
A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group, such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation that lacks a hydrogen atom. Betaine is a specific type of zwitterion. Historically, the term was used only for TMG (trimethylglycine). Biologically, TMG is involved in methylation reactions and detoxification of homocysteine.
In biological systems, many naturally occurring betaines act as organic osmolytes. These are substances synthesized or taken up by cells from the environment to protect against osmotic stress, drought, high salinity or high temperature. The intracellular accumulation of betaines allows for water retention in the cells, thus protecting them from the effects of dehydration. This accumulation does not interfere with enzyme function, protein structure and membrane integrity. Betaine is also an increasingly important methyl donor in biology.
How is betaine produced?
The original betaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, got its name after the discovery of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris) in the nineteenth century. It is a minor N-trimethylated amino acid. It is a non-isomerizable zwitterion because it does not have an unstable hydrogen atom attached to a nitrogen atom. This substance may be called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines.
Betaine can be produced by oxidation of choline.
What does betaine look like?
It is available in crystalline, transparent, powdery solid or liquid form.
What is the molecular formula of betaine?
Molecular Formula: C19H38N2O3
In which sectors is betaine used?
- medical industry
- Personal cleaning products industry
- animal food
What are betaine usage areas (processes)?
- Phosphonium betaines are intermediates in the Wittig reaction.
- Adding betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves DNA amplification by reducing secondary structure formation in GC-rich regions. It has been reported that the addition of betaine increases the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by eliminating the base pair composition dependence of DNA melting. The addition of betaine can improve the circularization of single-stranded DNA.
- It is used as an additive in supplement products used by bodybuilders.
- It is used as a food additive in animal foods.
- It improves the cleaning and softening properties of these products by helping cationic proteins and polymers in personal cleaning products such as shampoo and hand soap. Depending on the water solution, it can have cationic or anionic properties.
What is Betaine Sale Price?
You can call us to learn the current betaine sales prices and take advantage of the best prices.
Where Can Betaine Be Purchased?
As SoleChem Kimya, we are selling and supplying betaine.