What is Activated Carbon?
activated carbon It can be defined as an adsorbent material whose inner surface area and pore volume are highly improved with the activation process applied to materials with high carbon content. There is no chemical formula expressing this structure.
The expanded surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and surface reactivity of activated carbon enable it to be used as a unique adsorbent. The pore volume of activated carbons is usually larger than 0.2 ml/g and the inner surface area is higher than 400m2 (the surface area measured according to the BET method using nitrogen gas). The pore diameter ranges from 3 Å to several 1000 angstroms.
How is Activated Carbon produced?
Today, activated carbon can be produced from many abundant and cheap materials with high carbon and low inorganic material content. Generally, coal, petroleum residues, wood, coconut shell, pulp mud, sawdust and bitumen obtained from the pyrolysis of fossil fuels are used as raw materials. The most basic criteria in the selection of raw materials are availability, price and purity, while the production process and purpose of use are also taken into account.
Activated Carbon usage areas:
Its high internal surface area makes it attractive to use in industry as a good adsorbent. It has a wide range of applications such as food, pharmacy, chemistry, petroleum, mine, nuclear, automobile, waste gas and cleaning of water. Large surface area, high surface reactivity, suitable pore distribution, mechanical durability are the properties sought in activated carbon.
Although the use of activated carbon in our country is frequently encountered both in industrial applications and in daily life, there is no facility that produces activated carbon in an industrial sense. For this reason, activated carbon is imported under various trade names and offered for use. However, there are many research and development studies in the fields related to the production and use of activated carbon, because our country has many resources that can be used as raw materials in the production of activated carbon. Among these resources are lignite with high carbon content, abundant reserves, biomass (wood sawdust, various fruit seeds and peels, etc.) and industrial wastes.
What are the types of Activated Carbon?
Classification of activated carbon based on its properties, surface characteristics and behavior is a complex process. E.g; BET surface area does not give an adequate idea about the quality of activated carbon. Because, as the size of the adsorbed molecule changes, the usable surface area also changes. However, information on surface area and pore structure can be used for comparison purposes. In fact, the adsorption capacity can be considered as the only parameter that can give an idea about the quality of activated carbon. Here, activated carbon is classified according to particle size and particle shape.
Powdered Activated Carbon
They are activated carbons with a particle size of less than 100 µm. The average radius is in the range of 15-25 µm. This type of activated carbon has large surface area and small diffusion distance. It is used for solution phase adsorption. It is very easy to use. Carbon is added to the solution, mixed, briefly contacted (5-30 min.) and separated by filtration. Activated carbons in this group are used for medicinal purposes and decolorization.
Granular Activated Carbon
It has larger particle size and smaller outer surface area than powder activated carbon. It is preferred in gas and liquid adsorption applications. Diffusion rate is high. The size of the carbon granules is important. The gas to be adsorbed is passed through the activated carbon bed. If the particle size is small, there is a pressure drop across the bed and the gas entrains the carbon particles. The size of the particles is selected depending on the height of the bed used. Higher height also increases the size of the granules. These types of activated carbons are used in water purification, decolorization and separation of components of flow systems.
Pellet (cylindrical) Activated Carbon
What are the Application Areas of Activated Carbon?
Air and Gas Purification, Volatile Organic Compound Removal
Activated carbons are used extensively to remove many unwanted pollutants from the gas phase, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odor-forming molecules. In Turkey, with the “Regulation on Control of Industrial Air Pollution” in 2009, especially VOC and NH3 legal regulations on emissions have been introduced. SoleChem Chemistry is always ready to support industries with its high retention rate activated carbons for air purification solutions.
VOCs that can be released in industrial processes such as chemical/pharmaceutical production, air vents of petrochemical tanks, spray painting booths and soil treatment projects; They contain compounds such as acetone, benzene, styrene, toluene and xylene.
In odor control systems; hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mercaptans, DMS and ammonia (NH3), impregnated activated carbons are used to remove compounds such as
It is necessary to remove pollutants such as VOCs in industrial gas lines or to remove trace levels of heavy metals such as mercury and cadmium in natural gas lines.
In the oil and gas industry, special activated carbons are used as catalyst support in the Merox process used for mercaptan oxidation. Mercaptans are removed from hydrocarbon streams by converting them to liquid disulfides.
In personal protection applications such as respirators and escape hoods, activated carbons are used to remove many harmful or toxic gas compounds.
Activated carbons are used in cigarette filters to improve the taste experience by removing some components in the smoke.
SoleChem offers a wide range of Activated Carbons for air and gas purification to suit the customer's specific process conditioning requirements.
Biogas is the name given to methane produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes. It is produced in solid waste landfills, wastewater treatment plants, and also in Anaerobic Digester plants using food waste or agricultural by-products.
Biogas is used to generate renewable energy by burning it in a combined heat and power engine. However, it must be removed to prevent the various impurities it contains from damaging the engine.
Activated carbon, Hydrogen Sulfide (H) in the biogas industry2It is widely used to remove S) gas, Siloxanes and various Volatile Organic Compounds.
SoleChem is a leading supplier of activated carbon to the renewable energy industry and has extensive experience helping customers choose the right carbon for their complex processes.
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industry
Food & Beverage
Flue Gas Treatment
Purification of wastewater
Where is Activated Carbon Used?
Usage areas in the field of Gas Purification:
- In coating and printing processes used in various industries such as food and chemistry, solvent recovery
- In natural gas purification, H2S and BTX (Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes) removal
- In waste incineration plants, cleaning of waste gas and removal of dioxins and heavy metals it contains
- In the treatment of waste air following processes involving the removal of organic impurities
- CO2, HE2 and N2 in the purification, washing and separation of oil from compressed air.
- In the removal of pollutants in air conditioning, ventilation and heating systems
- In the removal of malodorous substances in kitchen waste gases and filters of refrigerators
- In the removal of pollutants in vehicle interior ventilation systems
- in gas masks
- In cigarettes and cigarette filters
- As special carriers and catalysts
- In industries such as automotive, storage tanks and emission control
- In the removal of hydrocarbon and BTX (Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes) in exhaust gas purification systems
- Sulfur dioxide (SO) in pigment production, roasting and consolidation plants, or in the production of sulfuric acid2) in the removal
- In solvent recovery and steam or hot gas recycling in various industries
Areas of use in the field of Water Conditioning:
- In the cleaning and decolorization of products such as softeners, shellac, glycerin, enzymes, paraffin, Vaseline, wax, fine chemicals and organic acids
- In the decolorization and deodorization of gelatins
- In cleaning galvanization pools
- In the decolorization and purification of intermediate and final products in the pharmaceutical industry
- In the purification and decolorization of sugar solutions
- In the purification and decolorization of solutions used in the production of glucose, dextrose and other starch products, as well as lactose
- Decolorization of flavors and glutamate
- Processing of vegetable and animal oils
- Decolorization and purification of fruit juices and fruit extracts
- In biological treatment systems, in the removal of substances that may be toxic to bacteria
- In the treatment of water in tertiary wastewater treatment plants where effluent restrictions are too high
- In the production of drinking water, purification of the product following flocculation, oxidation and filtration
- In water purification processes where chlorine, hypochlorite, peroxide and ozone are used intensively, in the removal of residual oxidants